Junípero Serra (1713–1784) was a Spanish missionary in America. Miguel José Serra was born in Petra on the island of Mallorca on Nov. 24, 1713. He entered the Franciscan order, taking the name Junípero, in September 1730 and was ordained in 1738. He quickly won recognition as a professor of philosophy and as a pulpit orator.
Placide Tempels (1906–1977) was a Belgian Roman Catholic missionary who helped Europeans understand that a traditional African worldview is both systematic and philosophical. Born near Hasselt, Belgium, on Feb. 18, 1906, Frans Tempels entered the order of the Franciscan Friars Minor in Tielt in 1924, taking the name Placide. He was ordained a priest in August 1930 and in 1933 went to what was then the Belgian Congo (later, the Democratic Republic of the Congo).
Reinhold Niebuhr (1892–1971) was an American pastor, educator, theologian, and political philosopher whose intellectual creativity and social involvement made him the leader of a major reconstruction in religious ethics.
Nelson Goodman (1906–1998) was a 20th-century American philosopher who radically reshaped the academic study of philosophy, forcing fundamental reconceptions of its problems, ends, and means. Goodman’s work cuts across the various branches of philosophy, revealing shared features and connecting links that more narrowly focused philosophers overlook.